The MLA Handbook, published by the Modern Language Association, is widely used in subjects in the humanities to document and cite references in research papers. This guide by no means replaces consultation of the handbook itself; rather, it provides only the most common citations. The seventh edition introduces students to significant changes from the previous edition of MLA documentation style. The handbook is to be found in the Reference, Reserve, and Circulating collections of the Library. Its official title is MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, Seventh Edition. Its call number is LB 2369.G53 2009.
Table of Contents
- Citing Works Using MLA Style in the Works Cited List
- In-Text Citations Using Author-Page Method
- Sample “Works Cited” List
Citing Works Using MLA Style in the “Works Cited” List
The Works Cited list should be started on a new page at the end of the paper (see sample at the end of this guide).
- Electronic Articles
- Journal, Magazine, and Newspaper Articles Retrieved Online
Online journal article:
Since Web addresses are not static, MLA no longer requires the use of URLs in citations. Most readers can find electronic sources via title or author searches in Internet search engines.Shah, Parilah Mohd, and Fauziah Ahmad. “A Comparative Account of the Bilingual Education Programs in Malaysia and the United States.” GEMA Online Journal of Language Studies 7.2 (2007): 63-77. Web. 5 June 2008Online magazine article:
Poniewozik, James. “Survivor: Alaska.” Time 30 Nov. 2009. Web. 11 Dec. 2009.
Online newspaper article:
Linebaugh, Kate. “Slump Spreads to Health Care as Michigan Loses Auto Jobs.” Wall Street Journal 13 July 2009: n. pag. Web. 13 July 2009.
Online electronic book:
Whitman, Walt. Leaves of Grass. Brooklyn, 1855. The Walt Whitman Archive. Web. 11 Dec. 2009.
Online book review:
Rohter, Larry. “A Mischievous Novelist with an Eye and an Ear for the Unusual.” Rev. of Beauty Salon, by Mario Bellatin. New York Times 9 August 2009. Web. 29 Oct. 2009.
Online encyclopedia article:
“Melville, Herman.” Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2009. Web. 11 Dec. 2009.
Eaves, Morris, Robert Essick, and Joseph Viscomi, eds. The William Blake Archive. Library of Congress, 8 May 2008. Web. 15 May 2008.
Single Web Page:
Zamosky, Lisa. “6 Daily Habits That May Make You Sick.” WebMD. HLTH Corporation, 2009. Web. 13 July 2009.
- Journal, Magazine, and Newspaper Articles Retrieved from a DatabaseJournal article from a database:
Minkov, Michael. “Predictors of Differences in Subjective Well-Being Across 97 Nations.” Cross-Cultural Research 43.2 (2009): 152-179. Academic Search Complete. Web. 7 May 2009.Magazine article from a database:
Halperin, Shirley. “Parsons Celebrated.” Rolling Stone 955 (2004): 36. Academic Search Complete. Web. 11 Dec. 2009.
Newspaper article from a database:
Harris, Elizabeth A. “Deco at a Discount.” New York Times 13 Dec. 2009: 7. LexisNexis. Web. 17 Dec. 2009.
Book review from a database:
Kirn, Walter. “A Private Eye Brings the Cosmos Down to Size.” Rev. of Inherent Vice, by Thomas Pynchon. International Herald Tribune 27 August 2009: 10. LexisNexis. Web. 17 Dec. 2009.
- Journal, Magazine, and Newspaper Articles Retrieved Online
- Books and Other Print SourcesBook by one author:
Fukuyama, Francis. Our Posthuman Future: Consequences of the Biotechnology Revolution. New York: Farrar, 2002. Print.Book by two authors:
Cone, John D., and Sharon L. Foster. Dissertations and Theses from Start to Finish: Psychology and Related Fields. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 1993. Print.
Edited book, no author:
Thomas, James, and Robert Shapard, eds. Flash Fiction Forward: 80 Very Short Stories. New York: W.W. Norton and Co., 2006. Print.
Edited book with an author or authors:
Austen, Jane. Sense and Sensibility. Ed. Claudia Johnson. New York: Norton, 2001. Print.
Rulfo, Juan. Pedro Páramo. Trans. Margaret Sayers Peden. New York: Grove, 1994. Print.
A Work in an Anthology or Compilation:
Allende, Isabel. “Toad’s Mouth.” Trans. Margaret Sayers Peden. A Hammock Beneath the Mangoes: Stories from Latin America. Ed. Thomas Colchie. New York: Plume, 1992. 83-88. Print.
Book, no author or editor:
Encyclopedia of Virginia. New York: Somerset, 1993. Print.
- Print ArticlesJournal article:
Aciman, André. “Intimacy: Revisiting the Gritty Roman Neighborhood of his Youth, a Writer Discovers a World of his own Invention.” American Scholar 77.3 (2008): 43-57. Print.Magazine article:
Powell, Bill. “Korea After Kim.” Time 13 April 2009: 40-41. Print.
The pages a newspaper article covers are indicated by p. for articles of one page (p. C4) and pp. for articles multiple pages in length (pp. A1, A3 or pp. C3-C5 or D6+).
Jeromack, Paul. “Thus Once, a David of the Art World Does Goliath a Favor.” New York Times 13 July 2002, late ed.: B7+. Print.
Newspaper article, no author:
“False God?” The Economist 3 Dec. 2009: 50. Print.
Letter to the Editor:
Baker, Ben. “Small Papers.” Letter. American Journalism Review Aug/Sep2009: 3-5. Print.
Review of a book:
Maslin, Janet. “Pick Your Adjective: Talented, Secretive, Perverse.” Rev. of The Talented Miss Highsmith: The Secretive Life and Serious Art of Patricia Highsmith, by Joan Shenkar. The New York Times 2 Dec. 2009: C7. Print.
Tannen has argued this point (178-85).
This point has already been argued (Tannen 178-85).
Others, like Jacobson and Waugh (210-15), hold the opposite point of view.
Others hold the opposite point of view (e.g., Jacobson and Waugh 210-15).
When a work has three authors and they are named in the parentheses, separate the names with commas.
(Alton, Davies, and Rice 56).
Name all of the authors or include only the first author’s name followed by et al.
The study was extended for two years and only after results were reviewed by an independent panel did the researchers publish their findings (Blaine et al. 35).
If you quote a source word-for-word, enclose those words in quotation marks. Follow this with an in-text citation that includes the page number and the author.
It may be true, as Robertson maintains, that “in the appreciation of medieval art the attitude of the observer is of primary importance . . .” (136).
It may be true that “in the appreciation of medieval art the attitude of the observer is of primary importance . . .” (Robertson 136).
For variations and other examples including quotations of 4 or more lines, see p. 92-94 of the manual.
Association of College & Research Libraries. Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education. Chicago: American Library Association, 2000. Print.
Chan, Evans. “Postmodernism and Hong King Cinema.” Postmodern Culture 10.3 (2000): n. pag. Project Muse. Web. 5 June 2008.
Flanagan, Caitlin. “Why Marriage Matters.” Time 2 July 2009: n. pag. Web. 2 July 2009.
“Frankenstein: The Making of the Monster.” Great Books. Narr. Donald Sutherland. Writ. Eugenie Vink. Dir. Jonathan Ward. Learning Channel. 8 Sept. 1993. Television.
Fukuyama, Francis. Our Posthuman Future: Consequences of the Biotechnology Revolution. New York: Farrar, 2002. Print.
Heim, Michael Henry, and Andrzej W. Tymowski. Guidelines for the Translation of Social Science Texts. New York: ACLS, 2006, American Council of Learned Societies. Web. 15 May 2008.
Jeromack, Paul. “Thus Once, a David of the Art World does Goliath a Favor.” New York Times 13 July 2002, late ed.: B7+. Print.
Lakshmi, Rama. “Attacks by Maoist Rebels in India Leave 17 Dead as Election Begins.” Washington Post 17 Apr. 2009: A10. LexisNexis. Web. 7 May 2009.
Minkov, Michael. “Predictors of Differences in Subjective Well-Being across 97 Nations.” Cross-Cultural Research. 43.2 (2009): 152-179. Academic Search Premier. Web. 7 May 2009.
Prasso, Sheridan. “Saving the World One Cup of Yogurt at a Time.” Fortune 2 Feb. 2007: 96-102. Business Source Premier. Web. 7 May 2009.
Quade, Alex. “Elite Team Rescues Troops behind Enemy Lines.” CNN.com. Cable News Network, 19 Mar. 2007. Web. 15 May 2008.
Whittier, John G. “A Prayer.” The Freedmen’s Book. Ed. L. Maria Child. Boston, 1866. 178. Google Book Search. Web. 15 May 2008.