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c. 1000 BCE Earliest evidence of settlement on the site of Rome

The Early Kings

753 Traditional date for the foundation of the city of Rome
753-510/509 Rome ruled by Etruscan kings until their expulsion by Lucius Junius Brutus

The Republic

509-27 The Roman Republic: Rome ruled by assemblies, legislatures and magistracies: Comitia, Senate, Consulate and Tribunate.
493-295 Rome gradually asserts its dominance over neighboring Latins, Etruscans, and Samnites.
280-264 Annexation of Etruria and the Greek cities of southern Italy.
264-242 First Punic War against Carthage; annexation of Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica
218-202 Second Punic War; defeat of Hannibal; annexation of Spain
215-148 Macedonian Wars; annexation of Macedonia and Epirus
149-146 Third Punic War; destruction of Carthage. Annexation of north Africa
146 Greek states made a dependency and later province of Achaea
133-101 Gradual annexation of Asia Minor and Hellenistic kingdoms; Syria annexed (63 BCE)
133-60 Civil conflict leads to the First Triumvirate
49-44 Civil Wars - Julius Caesar becomes dictator for life; Caesar is assassinated (44 BCE)
44-31 Civil Wars: Octavianus Caesar defeats Marcus Antonius and Queen Cleopatra of Egypt at Actium (31 BCE); Annexation of Egypt; Octavian becomes sole master of the Roman world

The Empire

27 BCE -14 CE Octavian, known as Augustus, rules as princeps, ushering in the Principate as first emperor.
9 BCE Dedication of the Ara Pacis Augustae in Rome.
27 BCE - 68 CE Julio-Claudian Dynasty: conquest of Britain (43)
69-96 Flavian Dynasty; Destruction of Jerusalem (70)

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