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The Ionian Greek Cities of Asia Minor and the Greek Islands

The twelve cities of the Ionian confederacy were Chios, Clazomenae, Colophon, Ephesus, Erythraeus, Lebedus, Miletus, Myous, Phocaea, Priene, Samos, and Teos.

Some of the more famous monuments from these cities are listed below:

Didyma: an immense Temple of Apollo from ca. 550 BCE had an oracle as important as Delphi and was later rebuilt (shown here at right)

Miletos: the huge theater stands still today, as well as remains of this great commercial city, which had a sacred road to Didyma

Ephesos: a great Temple of Artemis from ca. 530 BCE rivalled that of Hera at Samos. One of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World

Priene: the 4th century Temple of Athena designed by Pythios is the finest example of an Ionic temple in all of Greece

Samos: the great Temple of Hera, built ca. 530 BCE after the Rhoikos temple burned down, drew worshippers from all over Greek lands
Image from: http://www.exploreturkey.com/pic_htms/didim02.htm

Ionian cities produced some of Greece's most important figures:
Poets: Alkaios of Mytilini, Lesbos; Arion of Methymna, Lesbos; Anakareon of Teos; Homer from Chios; Sappho of Mytilini
Four of the Seven Wise Men: Bias of Priene; Kleoboulos of Rhodes; Pittakos of Mytilini; Thales from Miletos
Philosophers: Anaximander of Miletos; Herakleitos of Ephesos; Hermarchos of Mytilini; Theophrastos of Lesbos
Other: Historian Herodotos of Halikarnassos; Physician Hippokrates of Cos; Pythagoras of Samos  

Alexander and Hellenistic Civilization

Classical Greek civilization flourished in the East during the Hellenistic period, following the death of Alexander in 323 BCE until the defeat of Antony and Cleopatra in Egypt by Octavian (later Augustus) in 31 BCE.

Greek culture reached most of North Africa and the Near East through the campaigns of Alexander the Great from 336-323, which reached as far as India. After his death with no heir provided, the loosely held empire that Alexander accumulated was divided up among several of his followers: Ptolemy took Egypt, Seleucus took Syria, Antigonas took Macedonia. Greek art and culture slowly became diluted with native elements, more in some areas, less in others. Rome gradually acquired these kingdoms, either by warfare as in Macedonia at the battle of Pydna in 168 BCE, at Corinth in 146 BCE, or by the will of the last king as at Pergamon in 133 BCE.

Alexandria in Egypt founded by Alexander was one of the most shining of Hellenistic cities in the Greek world. Its LIBRARY was the famous library in antiquity and is being rebuilt today as the Biblioteca Alexandrina. Its Lighthouse was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.

Read: "The Dating of the Coinage of Alexander the Great" by ZoŽ Sophia Kontes

Read: Ellen Brundige on the Library at Alexandria: http://www.digital-brilliance.com/kab/alex.htm  



Although rising later than other areas of the post-Alexander Hellenistic world, under the rule of the Attalid dynasty beginning with Lysimachos in 282 BCE, Pergamon became one of the greatest of Greek cities, both architecturally and culturally. The peak of its power came under Eumenes II (197-159 BCE), when many of the city's most famous monuments were constructed.

It's LIBRARY was second only to that of Alexandria in Egypt, and in fact parchment (paper from the skin of goats) was developed there when Ptolemy became jealous of the rising power of the Pergamene library and refused to allow papyrus to be exported from Egypt. The great statue of Athena in the Library was a copy of the Athena Parthenos in Athens.

Many of its temples and other buildings remain partly standing today, and its most famous monument, the Altar of Zeus, which appeared on coins of the city, has been reconstructed in the Pergamon Museum, Berlin.

Perseus Project: http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/siteindex?entry=Pergamon

Univ. Texas: http://www.utexas.edu/courses/citylife/pergamon.html

Pergamon Citadel of the Gods: http://www.bookreviews.org/Reviews/156338261X.html  


Terracotta Statuettes

Left to right: SIIAS A 1745 and A 1985 (Nike/Victory); A70.7.31 (girl near column);
A 1753 (boy near column); A 1734 (Muse)
Statuettes like these were placed in tombs as gifts for the deceased, or donated in sanctuaries (religious centers) as gifts to the deity. Although there are statuettes known from all periods of Greek art, from Archaic through Classical and Hellenistic, most of the surviving pieces like these are from later periods.

Left to right: SIIAS #56 (woman on horse); nn. (woman on dog?)

Statues like these are reminiscent of the large marble akroteria placed on the roofs of Greek temples and other buildings. Images of mythical females riding sea-creatures or other mythical animals were favorite subjects for temples, such as this Naiad from the Temple of Asklepios at Epidaurus.  



Further Reading about Greek Sculpture
in the CSI Library

A: John Boardman, Greek sculpture : the late classical period and sculpture in colonies and overseas NB 94 .B63 1995
B: Andrew Stewart, Greek sculpture : an exploration REF NB 90 .S74 1990
C: Brunilde Sismondo Ridgway, Prayers in stone : Greek architectural sculpture ca. 600-100 B.C.E. NA 3350 .R53 1999
D: Carol C. Mattusch, Classical bronzes : the art and craft of Greek and Roman statuary NB 135 .M38 1996